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MPL W515 mutations, CALR exon 9 mutations, and the most frequent mutation observed in MPN, JAK2 V617F, which results in ligand-independent proliferation, are all considered to be key driver mutations of MPN pathogenesis. The term ‘triple-negative’ refers to the absence of mutations in three key driver genes, JAK2, CALR, or MPL. However, patients with triple-negative MPN can carry mutations in other genes.