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Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which include anagrelide, cilostazol, and milrinone, prevent breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) promoting vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation. They have also been shown to block intracellular TLR signaling, leading to apoptosis in malignant lymphocytic cells.